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Women Runners in China: Constraints Negotiation Process of Serious Leisure

Date: 2022-01-30       Visitcount: 2

Women Runners in China: Constraints Negotiation Process of Serious Leisure

Wenting Zhou,; Yajun Qiu; Haibo Tian; Xu Jiao


International Journal of Enviromental Research and Punlic Health

2022 Volume 19  Issue 1

DOI: 10.3390/ijerph19010214



The constraint negotiation process is a prominent part of serious leisure, and leisure-oriented women runners in China may behave differently in this process. An adjusted model was proposed to examine the constraint negotiation process of serious leisure for women runners. An online questionnaire was conducted that contained 239 valid samples measuring the participation, intrinsic motivation, constraints and negotiation of women runners. The structure of variables was confirmed based on the good results of reliability and validity test. Then the structural equation modeling results showed that constraints had a negative impact and negotiation had a positive impact on participation. Negotiation acts on constraints to reduce their negative perception. Furthermore, intrinsic motivation has a significant positive effect on negotiation. There are high intrinsic motivation and fewer constraints reporting for women runners under high negotiation in serious leisure. The results provide additional explanation for the serious leisure participation of women runners. Future research should integrate women’s life experiences to better understand the behavior revealed in this study.


Key Words

Women runners; constraints; negotiation; serious leisure; intrinsic motivation

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